CO2 extinguishing systems

EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS with sprinklers using dioxide



Depending on how secure within protective fire fighting, fire extinguishing carbon dioxide can be achieved in systems:

  • total flooding;
  • local extinction.

Total flooding extinguishing system carbon dioxide is done only where gaps enclosed (windows, doors, vents, pipes, etc..) Can be closed before or after the commencement spill carbon dioxide. Total flooding surface can extinguish fires, fires triggered mass or solid combustible material fires or electrical generators. total flooding.

For total flooding fire, the entire space protected enclosure shall be filled with carbon dioxide so that the oxygen concentration to fall in the shortest time possible in the value of maintaining combustion.

In total flooding extinguishing systems and fire instantaneous surface (flammable liquid), the amount (mass) of carbon dioxide must be introduced to cover losses total flooding fire, the entire space protected enclosure shall be filled carbon dioxide so that the oxygen concentration to fall in the shortest time possible to maintain combustion below.Total area (m2) gaps can not be closed should not exceed 3% of the volume of the chamber (m3) protected, or 10% of the total area (m2) and side surfaces of the upper and lower chamber. in case of technical or technological reasons these conditions can not be achieved, local extinguishing system is adopted.

The local extinguishing system must ensure carbon dioxide flooding limited areas. The system is used for surface fire, especially combustible liquid or solid, in premises where conditions are not insured for total flooding. We recommend this system to fire protection and quench cylinders, oil-cooled transformers, etc..

For purposes fall within the exceptional importance or special treasures, art museums or heritage buildings housing values ​​etc., Carbon dioxide plants are equipped with a backup power system (battery reserve assets).

Investors in other situations may provide backup power system, depending on the risk or danger of fire, the contribution to the fire construction and its value and goods.

The buildings of exceptional importance and special categories established under specific regulations, as well as those in which objects of heritage value, or when the investor require fixed installations with carbon dioxide must provide at least two distinct halves extinguishing half achieved through the active power (first half) and the active power reserve system (the second half).

To achieve carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing, oxygen concentration in protected areas should be reduced below 8%. It will take into account the protected enclosure leakage and fire extinguishing powder manufacturer requirements.

In enclosed premises where fire fighting installations amounts of carbon dioxide discharges exceeding 50% of the enclosure, ensure exhaust conditions (automatic blanking devices which ensure tightness in the normal position or valves that open at a certain pressure indoor air evacuation purposes only outdoors).

Carbon dioxide shows risks for users, in an atmosphere containing (3 … 4)% carbon dioxide user begins to breathe faster and at higher concentrations of 9% loses consciousness. At concentrations of about 20% death can occur in (20 … 30) minutes.

Discharge of large quantities of carbon dioxide by lack of oxygen and low visibility inside flooded (due to fog that forms) constitute a danger to health and life of users.



Depending on the storage pressure extinguishing substance, fixed carbon dioxide fire are:

  • hight pressure (working pressure highter then 21 bar);
  • low pressure (working pressure lower then 21 bar).


  • containers (cylinders) with carbon dioxide grouped into:
    • main power system (battery core assets);
    • power supply system (battery reserve assets), as applicable;
  • carbon collector (or collector pipe systems with multiple primary or backup battery);
  • drives ;
  • detection devices and electric equipment, signaling and control;
  • pipeline transportation and distribution of carbon dioxide;
  • carbon dioxide discharge nozzles;
  • control equipment;
  • pipeline order.

Fixed fire extinguishing low pressure carbon dioxide consist of:

  • containers (cylinders) insulated liquid carbon dioxide storage;
  • the main transport pipe;
  • distribution with triggering devices;
  • pipeline transportation and distribution of carbon dioxide;
  • carbon dioxide discharge nozzles;
  • detection devices and electric equipment, signaling and control;
  • control system;
  • refrigerators for cooling carbon dioxide, including equipment for measurement, control and actuation;
  • order pipeline and facility preparation extinguishing substance.

Commissioning of Fixed Fire Extinguishing carbon dioxide can do:

  • manual;
  • automatically.

Automatic Putting into operation of fixed fire extinguishing carbon dioxide can be pneumatic, mechanical, electrical, air-mechanical combined with electrical devices (low pressure systems), combined with air-mechanical power (for systems high pressure) and other drive systems.

Detection, signaling and control are designed and made ​​according to specific technical regulations and manufacturers of machinery and equipment. These systems must provide reliable operation to ensure the possibility of running check-ups and any inspections and repairs to be made easily.

Detection, signaling and control operation automatic extinguishing systems include installation of fire detection and signaling the outbreak in protected areas and controls and actuation of fixed fire-fighting carbon dioxide.

Detection system, signaling and control of plant carbon dioxide extinguishing aims reliable detection of fire outbreak in the bud, and perform automatic pre shareholders.

The main components of the detection systems, signaling and control are:

  • Detectors;
  • Manual signaling button;
  • Power detection, signaling and control;
  • Circuits of the installation;
  • Optical and acoustic signaling apparatus;
  • Electromechanical control devices to shareholders.

Detectors should ensure early detection of fire outbreak. Detectors can be simple – that detects a single parameter of combustion (smoke, flame, temperature), or multiple – which detects simultaneously firing two or three parameters. Regardless of the type of detector used in protected areas must provide a minimum of two detectors.

Signaling circuits that ensure the transmission of signals from the detectors to the central command performs signaling and observing the specialized technical regulations and conditions imposed by the manufacturer.

Circuits will be appropriately sized, with trails as short, and safety.

Circuits for detectors are distinct from those of manual fire alarm button. Switches are provided with mandatory automatic operation and manual buttons (manual trigger – the reference standard EN 54-11).

It is recommended that the signaling and control stations will be located near protected areas. Location of the plant signaling will be without high risk of fire, provided with proper safety lighting and accessible to authorized personnel.

Signaling and control stations must realize alert the user and operation (trigger) with timer Switches that, only after the pre shareholders. It will also ensure:

  • Eliminating the possibility of accidental extinguishing systems;
  • Automatic performance before tripping of alarm the user and some pre shareholders such as service interruption ventilation and air conditioning installations inside protected closing protection gaps functional elements (windows, doors, vents, etc..) interruption of plant operation that can disrupt extinction etc. Automatic alerting the fire service is compulsory civilian and military firefighters of make on demand;
  • Tripping delay Switches properly perform certain actions and measures to protect the users (typically less than 60 seconds). Do not allow a delay time that exceeds 120 seconds;
  • Safe operation of extinguishing.

Fixed extinguishing that commissioning is automatic and can be fitted with of lock command can trigger automatic spill. This lock can also provide the signaling and control center when it is located near protected areas and it can occur in a timely manner.

The control and drive must be safety. All Automatic operation will be doubled by manual operation.

Carbon dioxide used for fixed fire extinguishing installations are stored in high-pressure containers (bottles) metal. Quantity (mass) stored is determined by cylinder capacity.

Room temperature is placed in the containers (cylinders) with carbon dioxide have provided binding between -5oC and +35oC.

Containers (cylinders) with carbon dioxide protects against thermal radiation directly or indirectly, and if possible, should be located distant and isolated from sources of vibrations.

Grouping cylinders with carbon dioxide in the fixed fire-extinguishing installations shall be in batteries, separate the assets of the reserve.

Each cylinder is provided with the required individual use. in location systems to ensure emergency lighting batteries properly.

Each cylinder will discharge indicator and the battery is connected to the manifold by flexible hoses with check valves, such as changing the cylinder to be made without affecting the operation of other bottles of the battery. Losing weight cylinders for batteries command signals to the control point or where deemed necessary by the assembly.